Page 12-13 - Eko Med Plus 34

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Sadašnja istraživanja govore u prilog
ove teorije. 2002. godine Ames sa sarad-
nicima ukazuje da čak i do 1/3 genskih
mutacija rezultira smanjenim afinitetom
vezivanja korespondirajućeg enzima (ko-
diranog tim genom,) za koenzim, što se
odražava na smanjenoj brzini reakcije. On
tvrdi da se oko 50 genetskih bolesti u ljudi
uzrokovanih defektnim enzimima mogu
lečiti ili popraviti davanjem velikih doza
vitamina, jer vitamini kao sastavni deo
odgovarajućeg koenzima, mogu bar deli-
mično da poprave deficijentnu enzimsku
aktivnost.
U skladu sa tim konceptom, ortomo-
lekularna medicina razmatra nutritivne
potrebe svakog pojedinačnog pacijenta
i tretira je u skladu sa time. U toku tre-
tmana, svaki pacijent se pažljivo posma-
tra i doza mu se podešava. Inicijalna doza
suplementa se postepeno povećava do
tolerancije pacijenta, koja varira od pa-
cijenta do pacijenta. Na primer u slučaju
C vitamina, doziranje se povećava sve
do nivoa koji izaziva reaktivnu meku
stolicu, posle čega doza se smanjuje tek
toliko da više ne prouzrokuje neželjene
efekte. Niacin se dozira dok ne izazove
efekat mučnine i/ili povraćanja, nakon
čega se podesi da postigne samo terapij-
ske efekte.
Zaključak
Stupamo u novu eru gde novi trendovi
u medicini naglašavaju značaj ishrane u
prevenciji mnogih stanja i gde se na
ishranu gleda kao značajnu potporu u
terapiji. Isto tako, praksa je pokazala da
tretiranje bolesne osobe a ne same bolesti,
ima bolji izgled na uspeh.
Ortomolekularna medicina je shvatila
značaj kako ishrane tako i individualnosti
i unela ju je u svoj koncept od samog
početka. Od posebnog značaja je imple-
mentacija ishrane i vitamina i ostalih
prirodnih supstanci u neurologiji a naro-
čito psihijatriji. Psihijatrijske bolesti se
posmatraju sa aspekta biohemijskih
procesa, a ne samo u okviru psihološke
ili socijalne sfere. Ortomolekularna psihi-
jatrija smatra da metaboličke abnormal-
nosti u okviru nervnog sistema, uslovljene
genetskim poremećajem, mogu da proi-
zvedu mnoge manifestacije duševnih
bolesti, te da se mogu tretirati hranom i
supstancama koje se prirodno nalaze u
ljudskom telu. Vitamini, naročito B3 i C ,
kao integrativni i krucijalan deo ovih he-
mijskih procesa se daju u optimalnim,
veoma često mega dozama da bi se pre-
vazišli abnormalni metabolički putevi.
Šizofrenija, kao i druge mentalne bolesti,
u skladu sa ovim konceptom, nastaju u
onih osoba koje su relativno deficitarne
u određenim vitaminima i najverovatnije
i nekim esencijalnimmineralima i drugim
potrebnimprirodnimmaterijama. Drugim
rečima, potrebe za ovim esencijalnim
supstancama u osoba sa šizofrenijom su
mnogo veće nego u odnosu na generalnu
populaciju da bi održali normalne fizio-
loške procese i stvaranje neurotransmite-
ra, te se terapija mora uskladiti sa ovim
potrebama.
U zaključku, nameće se činjenica da je
u budućnosti potrebno detaljnije ispita-
tivanje veze između ishrane i suplemen-
tacije, genetske aberacije i neuroloskih i
psihijatrijskih bolesti, jer bi nove informa-
cije mogle da dovedu do razvoja novih
dijetetskih protokola, prilagođenih poje-
dincu za prevenciju i terapiju neuroloških
i mentalnih bolesti, ali i zdravijeg procesa
starenja sa boljim kvalitetom života.
Definition and history
of the concept
The name orthomolecular was derived
from a Greek word orthos (
ὀρθός
-
correct) and a Neo Latin word molecu-
la (molecule), which represents the
simplest structure of a compound. It
literally means the “right molecule”.The
orthomolecular therapy thus refers to
a correction of the body chemistry
which involves administration of the
right combination of substances nor-
mally present in the body, or required
by the body, like vitamins, minerals,
essential amino and fatty acids and
other substances in the right amounts.
Linus Pauling, a double Nobel Laure-
ate and a discoverer of sickle-cell anemia
as a first „molecular disease”, coined the
name and principle of the discipline of
ORTHOMOLECULAR MEDICINE AND PSYCHIATRY
History and concept
dr Karmensita
Maskarel
In 1967, Linus Pauling
wrote:
”I was astonished that niacin and
ascorbate, with the striking physiolo-
gical property, when given in very
small amounts, of preventing death
from pellagra and scurvy, should be
so lacking in toxicity that 1,000 times
the effective daily intake could be
taken by a person without harm. This
meant that these substances were
quite different from drugs, which are
usually given to patients in amounts
not much smaller than the lethal
dosages. I thought that these substan-
ces, normally present in the human
body, and required for good health
and life, deserved a name to distingu-
ish them from ordinary Pharmaceu-
ticals, and I decided to call them
‘orthomolecular’ substances.” (Linus
Pauling in His Own Words: Selections
from his Writings, Speeches and Inter-
views, edited by Barbara Marinacci.
NY: Simon and Shuster, 1995.)
Over the past ten years there has been growing trend linking nutrition, environmen-
tal factors and life style to a wide range of diseases including neurologic and
psychiatric. Up to that time, with a few exceptions, nutritional approach in medi-
cine was either underestimated or ignored. Very often, body of evidence in favor
of nutritional intervention and healthy life style in clinical practice were subjected
to criticism and condemnation by medical establishment of that time due to lack
of proper knowledge and education in the field. Thanks to the advances in envi-
ronmental and nutritional studies, molecular biology, with the enormous growth
of the field of genetics and epigenetics, and in particular in the amount of popu-
lation- based epidemiological studies, more evidence has surfaced that is changing
our prospective on vitamins, macro and micro nutrients and nutrition as a whole.
Food and nutrition have become a subject of great interest in research in the
mainstreammedicine, especially their role in allergy and intolerances, toxic impact
of food contaminants, and the correlation between genetic makeup and diet in
growing number of chronic diseases. On the other hand, concept of incorporating
nutrition and supplementation of naturally occurring nutrients in optimal, but
often mega doses, and tailored individually has been at the very base of orthomo-
lecular medicine and psychiatry since its beginning, about 60 years ago. Although
the orthomolecular field still remains controversial and at the outskirts of the
mainstream medicine, many of its postulates have been either confirmed or reco-
gnized as a point in right direction with advances of current research.
Let food be thy medicine
and medicine be thy food.
Hippocrates (460-360 B.C.)
Linus Pauling, Ph.D.
molecular biologist (1901-1994)
http://orthomolecular.org/history/
index.shtml
orthomolecular psychiatry. In the paper
entitled „Orthomolecular psychiatry”
published in Science in 1968 he defined
orthomolecular psychiatric therapy as:
The treatment of mental disease by the
provision of the optimum molecular
environment for the mind, especially the
optimum concentration of substances
normally present in the human body” .
However, the concept of orthomole-
cular medicine is not new. It evolved
frommegavitamin therapy which began
in the early 1930s. At that time some
scientific and clinical evidence sugge-
sted that there might be beneficial uses
of higher then recommended amounts
of vitamin C, E and B3 to treat variety
of conditions and diseases. In early 1930s
Shute and Shute developed a protocol
for cardiovascular conditions withmega
doses of vitamin E. Large doses of intra-
venous vitamin C were used by Klenner
in 1940s in poliomyelitis and other viral
diseases and Kaufman used high doses
of vitamin B3 in the mid 1940s in
therapy of arthritis. In 1954, Altschul
and Hoffer applied mega doses of B3 to
treat hypercholesterolemia.
In orthomolecular psychiatry, the
actual treatment of mental diseases with
vitamin therapy started with discovery
of the cause and therapy of pellagra in
1937. It was noticed that mental symp-
toms in pellagra were often very similar
to those suffering from schizophrenia.
Since vitamin B3 was able to clear the
mental symptoms in pellagra, it is po-
stulated that this vitamin might play a
role in the biochemistry of the brain
function. However, scientific evidence
supporting nutritional and vitamin
therapy did not fully surface until two
doctors, Abram Hoffer and Humphry
Osmond, began treating acute cases of
schizophrenia withmega doses of niacin
( B3 ) and ascorbic acid ( vitamin C ). In
1951 they conducted a double blind,
prospective controlled study, the world’s
first in psychiatry, on patients with acute
schizophrenia in Saskatchewan, Canada.
In addition to the standard psychiatric
treatment, they used vitamin B3 in the
amount of 3 g daily for a month. The
patients were followed for 2 years.
Hoffer and Osmond concluded that this
therapy doubled the two years recovery
rate of patients with acute schizophre-
nia. Between 1953 and 1960 they com-
pleted six double blind controlled
randomized trials on adults and two
children with the same rate of success.
That was the beginning of orthomole-
cular medicine and psychiatry.
In the light of the therapeutic effect
of mega doses, Dr. Hoffer also came up
with a concept of „
vitamin dependent”
conditions where required doses of vi-
tamins are much greater that those
required to prevent the classical defici-
schizophrenic patients require 3 to 12 g
per day of vitamin B3 in order to allevia-
te their symptoms and healthy diet rich
in vitamins alone has no effect on their
condition.
Administration of large doses of
vitamin B3, particularly for acute
schizophrenia was based on a theory of
Osmond and Smythies that symptoma-
tology of schizophrenic patients was
due to endogenous production of an
adrenalin-based hallucinogen. As a
result, in 1954,
adrenochrome hypothe-
sis
was created by Hoffer, Osmond, and
Smythies. According to this hypothesis,
schizophrenia develops in those indivi-
duals who carry a genetic defect for
erroneous metabolism of adrenalin
leading to formation of its toxic meta-
bolites with hallucinogenic properties
like mescalin and similar substances.
The condition could be alleviated by
administration of large doses of vitamin
B3 which chemically changes the me-
tabolic pathway. In this way toxic sub-
stances cannot be formed and this in
turn would slow, stop and even reverse
progression of schizophrenia.
Despite Hoffer-Osmond clinical
success, there was no accordance in the
scientific circle regarding the proposed
mechanism and chemical compound
involved in a toxic action on the brain
ency syndromes. According to him,
increased need for a certain nutrient is
due to the error of individual metaboli-
sm, so classical deficiency syndrome as
well as dependency syndrome can clini-
cally have the same manifestation. For
example, if a person with a normal requ-
irements for B3 consumes a diet too low
in this vitamin, he will develop pellagra,
but so will a person with diet containing
average quantities of vitamin B3 with
increased need for B3. Schizophrenia is
viewed in orthomolecular psychiatry as
a vitamin B3 dependent disease because
entiae